European Centre for
Integrated Pest Management


Application of Molecular Methods to Pest Management

Bastos, A.D.S., Nair,D., Taylor, P.J., Brettschneider, H., Kirsten, F., Mostert, E., Maltitz, von, E., Lamb, J.M., Hooft, van P., Belmain, S.R., Contrafatto, G., Downs, S. and Chimimba, C.T.. (2011). Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in South Africa. BMC Genetics. 12:26.

Nakyanzi M, Fahleson J, Okori P, Seal S, Kenyon L and Dixelius C. (2009). Genetic analysis of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the Ugandan Lake Victoria region reveals a homogenous population.  Plant Pathology 58, 888-897.

Bousalem M, Durand O, Scarcelli N, Lebas BSM, Kenyon L, Marchand J-L, Lefort F and Seal SE (2009). Dilemmas caused by endogenous pararetroviruses regarding the taxonomy and diagnosis of yam (Dioscorea spp.) badnaviruses: analyses to support safe germplasm movement. Archives of Virology 154, 297-314.

GM Crops

Grzywacz, David, Rossbach, A., Rauf, A., Russell, Derek A., Srinivasan, R. and Shelton, A.M. (2010) Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa. Crop Protection, 29 (1). pp. 68-79. (Abstract).

Hillocks, R. J. (2009)  Gm cotton for Africa. Outlook on Agriculture 38, 311 – 316.

Shelton, A.M.Gujar, G.T., Chen, M.,Rauf, A., Srinivasan, R., Kalia, V., Mittal, A., Kumari, A., Ramesh, K., Borkakatti, R. Zhao, J.Z. Endersby, N., Russell, D.A., Wu, Y.D. and Uijtewaal, B. (2009) Assessing the susceptibility of cruciferous Lepidptera to Cry1Ba2 and Cry1Ca4 for future transgenic cruciferous vegetables.  Journal of Economic Entomology 202:2217-2223.

Host Plant Resistance

Muyinza H., Talwana H. L. , Mwanga R.O.M. and Stevenson P. C. (2012) Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas spp.) resistance in African sweetpotato germplasm. International Journal of Pest Management 58, 73-81 (Abstract).

Muyinza, H., Stevenson, P.C., Talwana H., Hall, D. R., Farman, D. I., Mwanga, R. O. M. (2010) Root Chemicals could offer opportunities for breeding for Sweet Potato Resistance to the Weevil Cylas puncticollis Boheman (Coleoptera: Apionidae). Aspects Of African Biodiversity : Royal Society Of Chemistry Special Publication, 321: 49–57.

Pande, S., J. Narayana Rao, M. Sharma, M. Pathak and P.C. Stevenson, (2010) Mass-screening Techniques for Early Selection of Disease Resistance in Chickpea: A critical Appraisal. Chapter 13 in Miranda M. [ed.] "Mass-screening Techniques for Early Selection of Disease Resistance in Neglected Crops: A Critical Appraisal". International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria, pp 201-234.

Stevenson, P.C., Muyinza, H., Hall, D.R., Porter, E.A., Farman, D.I., Herbert, T. and Mwanga, R. (2009). A Chemical Basis for Resistance in Sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas to the African Sweetpotato Weevil Cylas puncticollis. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 81(1): 141-151.

Implications of Climate Change

Chancellor, T.C.B and Kubiriba J. (2006) The Effects of Climate Change on Infectious Diseases of Plants.  Office of Science and Innovation Foresight project on Infectious Diseases: Preparing for the Future. (Paper T7.2 available in electronic format at:

Batima, Punsalmaa, Brander, Keith, Erda, Lin, Howden, Mark, Kirilenko, Andrei, Morton, John F., Soussana, Jean-François, Schmidhuber, Josef, Tubiello, Francesco, Easterling, William and Aggarwal, Pramod (2007) Food, fibre and forest products. In: Climate change 2007 – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 274-313. (Abstract).

Morton, John F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104:19680-19685 (Abstract).

Integrated Pest Management

Hillocks, R.J. (2013) Impact of EU Pesticide Reduction Strategy and implications for crop protection in the UK and the rest of Europe. Outlooks on Pest Management 24(5), 206-209.

Hillocks, R.J. (2012). Farming with fewer pesticides: EU Pesticide Review and resulting challenges for UK agriculture. Crop Protection, 31:85-93 (Abstract).

Russell, Derek A. and Kranthi, Keshav R. (2009). Changing trends in cotton pest management. In: Integrated Pest Management: Innovation-Development Process. Springer Science and Business Media (Netherlands), Dordrecht, pp 499-541. (Abstract).

Pande, S., Sharma, M., Neupane, Ram Krishna, Rao, J.N., Grzywacz, D., Baural, V.A. and Stevenson, P.C. (2009) Integrated crop management strategy for improved chickpea production and its impact on the livelihood of farmers in Nepal. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 37 (1/2):139-146 (Abstract).

Deguine, J.P., Ferron, P, and Russell, D.A. (2009). Crop protection, from agrochemistry to agroecology  Science Publishers, Enfield, Jersey, Plymouth.  ISBN 978-1-57808-652-8 (Abstract).

Microbial Control Agents

Redman, Elizabeth M., Wilson, Kenneth, Grzywacz, David and Cory, Jenny S. (2010) High levels of genetic diversity in Spodoptera exempta NPV from Tanzania. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. ISSN 0022-2011 (In Press).

Stevenson, P. C., D’Cunha, R F. and Grzywacz, D. (2010). Inactivation of Baculovirus by Isoflavonoids on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Leaf Surfaces Reduces the Efficacy of Nucleopolyhedrovirus Against Helicoverpa armigera. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36:227–235.

Grzywacz, David, Cherry, Andrew and Gwynn, Roma (2009) Biological pesticides for Africa: Why has so little of the research undertaken to date resulted in new products to help Africa's poor? Outlooks on Pest Management, 20:77-81.

Modelling Pest Systems

Tang, S., XiaoO, Y. & Cheke, R. A. (2010). Dynamical analysis of plant disease models with cultural control strategies and economic thresholds. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 80: 894-921.

Tang, S., Tang, G. & Cheke, R. A. (2010) Optimum timing for integrated pest management: modelling rates of pesticide application and natural enemy releases. Journal of Theoretical Biology 264: 623-638.

Tang, S., Cheke, R. A. & Xiao, Y.  (2009) Effects of predator and prey dispersal on success or failure of biological control. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 71: 2025–2047.

Tang, S. & Cheke, R.A. (2008) Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications. Mathematical Biosciences 215: 115-125.

Molecular Diagnostics

Abarshi MM, Mohammed IU, Wasswa P, Hillocks RJ, Holt J, Legg JP, Seal SE and Maruthi MN, (2010). Optimization of diagnostic RT-PCR protocols and sampling procedures for the reliable and cost effective detection of Cassava brown streak virus. Journal of Virological Methods 163:353–359.

Ahmed MZ, Ren S-X, Mandour NS, Maruthi MN, Naveed M, Qiu B-L. (2010). Phylogenetic analysis of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations from cotton plants in Pakistan, China, and Egypt. Journal of Pest Science 83:135–141.

Kumar PL, Ayodele M, Oben TT, Mahungu NM, Beed F, Coyne D, Londa L, Mutunda MP, Kiala D, Maruthi MN. (2009). First report of Banana bunchy top virus in banana and plantain (Musa spp.) in Angola. Plant Pathology 58: 402.

Organic Farming

Hillocks, R. J. (2003) IPM and organic agriculture for smallholders in Africa. IPM Reviews 7:17–27.

Pesticidal Plants

Belmain, S.R., Amoah, B.A., Nyirenda, S.P., Kamanula, J.F. Stevenson, P.C. (2012) Highly Variable Insect Control Efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii Chemotypes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60: 10055–10063.

Nyahngare, E.T., Mvumi, B.M. & Stevenson P.C. (2012) Tick control measures from nature, Afgriland, May Jun, 76-77.

Nyahangare, E.T., Hove, T., Hamudikuwanda, H., Belmain, S.R. Stevenson, P.C., Mvumi, B.M. (2012) Toxicity of the pesticidal plants Strychnos spinosa Lam., Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. & Wiersama Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Cissus quadrangularis L. in BALB/c mice, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 6: 2674-2680.

Stevenson, P.C. Kite G.C., Lewis G.P., Nyirenda S.P., Forest F. Belmain, S.R, Sileshi, G. and Veitch, N.C. (2012) Distinct chemotypes of Tephrosia vogelii and implications for their use in pest control and soil enrichment. Phytochemistry, 78, 135-146.

Thokozani, B.L.K., Zulu, D, Sileshi, G.W., Teklehaimanot, Z., Gondwe, D.S.B., Sarsan, V. & Stevenson, P.C. (2011) Seed germination and in vitro regeneration of the pan African medicinal and pesticidal plant Bobgunnia madagascariensis. African J. Biotech. 10: 5959-5966.

Zulu, D, Thokozani, B.L.K., Sileshi, G.W., Teklehaimanot, Z., Gondwe, D.S.B., Sarsan, V. & Stevenson, P.C. (2011) Towards successful propagation of the Africa medicinal and pesticidal plant Securidaca longependunculata. African J. Biotech. 10: 5988-5992.

Madzimure, J., Nyahangare, E.T., Hamudikuwanda, H., Hove, T., Stevenson, P.C., Belmain, S.R., and Brighton M. (2011). Acaricidal efficacy against cattle ticks and acute oral toxicity of Lippia javanica (Burm F.) Tropical Animal Health & Production, 43, 481-489.

Stevenson, P. C. Nyirenda, S.P., Mvumi, B.M., Sola, P., Kamanula, J.F., Sileshi, G., Belmain, S.R. (2012) Pesticidal plants: A viable alternative insect pest management approach for resource-poor farming in Africa. In: Opender Koul, G. S. Dhaliwal, S. Khokhar and Ram Singh (eds.), Biopesticides in Environment and Food Security: Issuers and Strategies, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, pp. 212-238.

Pesticides and their Use

Springate, S. & Colvin, J. (2012) Pyrethroid insecticide resistance in British populations of the cabbage whitefly, Aleyrodes proletella. Pest Management Science, 68: 260-267.

Bennett, B., Cooper, J. and Dobson, H. (2010). We know where the shoe pinches: A case study based analysis of the social benefits of pesticides. Outlook on Agriculture 39:79–87 (Abstract).

Cooper, J. and Dobson, H. (2007).  The benefits of pesticides to mankind and the environment. Crop Protection, 26: 1337-1348 (Abstract).

Post-Harvest Crop Protection

Arnold, S.E.J., Belmain, S.R., and Stevenson, P.C. (2012) Odour-mediated orientation of beetles is influenced by age, sex and morph. PLoS ONE. 7 (11); e49071.

Hodges, Rick, Buzby, J.C. and Bennett, Ben (2011) Postharvest losses and waste in developed and less developed countries: opportunities to improve resource use. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 149, 37-45 (Abstract).

Kamanula , J., Sileshi, G.W., Belmain, S.R., Sola, P., Mvumi, B.M., Nyirenda, G.K.C., Nyirenda, S.P.N. and Stevenson, P.C. (2011) Farmers’ Insect Pest management practices and pesticidal plant use for protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa. International Journal of Pest Management 57 (1). 41-49. (Abstract)

Stevenson, P.C. Jayasekera,T.K., Belmain, S.R., Veitch, N.C. (2009). Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata (Polygalaceae) with deterrent and toxic properties to Coleapteran storage pests. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57 (19), 8860–8867.


Fountain, M., Cross, J.V., Jåstad, G., Hall, D.R., Douglas, P., Farman, D.I. (2014).  Further studies on sex pheromones of female Lygus and related bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae): development of attractive lures and investigation of species-specificity.  Journal of Chemical Ecology

Hall, D.R., Amarawardana, L., Hilbur, Y., Boddum T. and Cross, J.V. (2012).  The chemical ecology of plant-feeding midges. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38:2-22 (Abstract).

Fountain, M., Cross, J., Farman, D. and Hall, D.R. (2011).  Using pheromones to monitor Lygus populations in fruit crops in the UK. Pheromones and other Semiochemicals, IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 72:7-13.

Hall, D., Shepherd, T., Fountain, M., Vétek, G., Jorna, C., Farman, D. And Cross, J. (2011).  Investigation of attraction of raspberry cane midge, Resseliella theobaldi, to volatiles from wounded raspberry primocanes.  Integrated Plant Protection in Soft Fruits, IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 70:1-9.

Pajares, J.A., Álvarez, G., Ibeas, F., Gallego, D., Hall, D.R. and Farman, D.I. (2010). Identification and field activity of a male-produced pheromone in the pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 36: 570-583 (Abstract).

Witzgall, P., Kirsch, P. and Cork, A. (2010) Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36, 80 -100 (Abstract).